Wednesday, 12 August 2015

Windows10 Windows 10 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. Officially unveiled in September 2014 following a brief demo at Build 2014,the operating system entered a public beta testing process in October 2014, leading up to and continuing through the consumer release of Windows 10 on July 29, 2015, and its release to volume licensing on August 1, 2015. To encourage its adoption, Microsoft announced that during its first year of availability, Windows 10 would be made available free of charge to users of genuine copies of eligible editions of Windows 7 or Windows 8.1. Windows 10 introduces what Microsoft described as a "universal" application architecture; expanding on Metro-style apps,these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code—including PCs,tablets,smartphones, embedded systems,and Xbox One,as well as new products such as Surface Hub and HoloLens. Windows 10's user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface with and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices—particularly on laplets; both interfaces include an updated Start menu that compromises a design similar to Windows 7 with 8's tiles. Windows 10 also introduces Task View, a virtual desktop system, the Microsoft Edge web browser and other new or updated applications, integrated support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and new versions of DirectX and WDDM to improve the operating system's graphics capabilities for games. Unlike previous versions of Windows, Microsoft described Windows 10 as "service" that would receive ongoing updates to its features and functionality. augmented with the ability for enterprise environments to receive non-critical updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that will only receive critical updates, such as security patches, over their five-year lifespan of mainstream support. Terry Myerson,executive vice president of Microsoft's Windows and Devices Group, argued that the goal of this model was to reduce fragmentation across the Windows platform, as Microsoft aimed to have Windows 10 installed on at least one billion devices in the two to three years following its release. Windows 10 received mostly positive reviews upon its original release in July 2015; critics praised Microsoft's decision to downplay user interface mechanics introduced by Windows 8 (including the full screen apps and Start screen) in non-touch environments to provide a desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, although Windows 10's touch-oriented user interface mode was panned for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of Windows 8. Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10's bundled software over 8.1, Xbox Live integration, as well as the functionality and capabilities of Cortana and the replacement of Internet Explorer with Edge—although the browser was criticized for being a work in progress that was not yet feature complete. Criticism of Windows 10 was directed towards a belief that the operating system was more limiting in how users could control its operation; in particular, Windows Update installs all updates automatically, no longer allows users to selectively install updates, and only the Pro edition of Windows 10 can "defer" the installation of "upgrades" for the operating system. Privacy concerns were also voiced by critics and advocates, as the operating system's default settings and certain features require the transmission of user data to Microsoft or its partners. At the Microsoft Worldwide Partner Conference in 2011, Andrew Lees, then chief of Microsoft's mobile technologies, stated that the company intended to have a single ecosystem for PCs, phones, tablets, and other devices. "We won’t have an ecosystem for PCs, and one for phones, and one for tablets—they’ll all come together." In December 2013, technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was working on an update to Windows 8 codenamed Threshold, after a planet in Microsoft's Halo franchise. Similarly to "Blue" (which became Windows 8.1), Foley called Threshold a "wave of operating systems" across multiple Microsoft platforms and services, scheduled for the second quarter of 2015. Foley reported that among the goals for Threshold was to create a unified application platform and development toolkit for Windows, Windows Phone and Xbox One (which all use a similar Windows NT kernel).It was speculated that Threshold would be branded as "Windows 9". In April 2014, at the Build Conference, Microsoft's Terry Myerson unveiled an updated version of Windows 8.1 that added the ability to run Windows Store apps inside desktop windows and a more traditional Start menu in place of the Start screen seen in Windows 8. The new Start menu takes after Windows 7's design by using only a portion of the screen and including a Windows 7-style application listing in the first column. The second column displays Windows 8-style app tiles. Myerson stated that these changes would occur in a future update, but did not elaborate.Microsoft also unveiled the concept of a "universal Windows app", allowing Windows Store apps created for Windows 8.1 to be ported to Windows Phone 8.1 and Xbox One while sharing a common codebase, with an interface designed for different device form factors, and allowing user data and licenses for an app to be shared between multiple platforms. Windows Phone 8.1 would share nearly 90% of the common Windows Runtime APIs with Windows 8.1 on PCs. In July 2014, Microsoft's new CEO Satya Nadella explained that the company was planning to "streamline the next version of Windows from three operating systems into one single converged operating system for screens of all sizes", unifying Windows, Windows Phone, and Windows Embedded around a common architecture and a unified application ecosystem. However, Nadella stated that these internal changes would not have any effect on how the operating systems are marketed and sold. Screenshots of a Windows build which purported to be Threshold were leaked in July 2014, showing the previously presented Start menu and windowed Windows Store apps followed by further screenshot in September 2014 of a build identifying itself as "Windows Technical Preview", numbered 9834, showing a new virtual desktop system, a notification center, and a new File Explorer icon. Threshold was officially unveiled during a media event on September 30, 2014, under the name Windows 10; Myerson said that Windows 10 would be Microsoft's "most comprehensive platform ever", providing a single, unified platform for desktop computers,laptops,tablets, smartphones,and all-in-one devices. He emphasized that Windows 10 would take steps towards restoring user interface mechanics from Windows 7 to improve the experience for users on non-touch devices, noting criticism of Windows 8's touch-oriented interface by keyboard and mouse users. Despite these concessions, Myerson noted that the touch-oriented interface would "evolve" as well on 10. In describing the changes, Joe Belfiore likened the two operating systems to electric cars, comparing Windows 7 to a first-generation Toyota Prius hybrid,and Windows 10 to an all-electric Tesla—considering the latter to be an extension of the technology first introduced in the former. Microsoft has not clarified the reasoning for naming the new operating system Windows 10 instead of Windows 9; however, Terry Myerson has stated that "based on the product that's coming, and just how different our approach will be overall, it wouldn't be right to call it Windows 9." He also joked that they could not call it "Windows One" (alluding to several recent Microsoft products with a similar brand, such as OneNote,Xbox One and OneDrive) because they had already made a Windows Further details surrounding Windows 10's consumer-oriented features were presented during another media event held on January 21, 2015, entitled "Windows 10: The Next Chapter". The keynote featured the unveiling of Cortana integration within the operating system, new Xbox-oriented features, Windows 10 for phones and small tablets,an updated Office Mobile suite, Surface Hub—a large-screened Windows 10 device for enterprise collaboration based upon Perceptive Pixel technology, along with HoloLens—augmented reality eyewear and an associated platform for building apps that can render holograms through HoloLens. On June 1, 2015, Microsoft first promoted that Windows 10 would be released on July 29, 2015. Microsoft began an advertising campaign centring around Windows 10, "Upgrade Your World", on July 20, 2015 with the premiere of television commercials in Australia, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The commercials focused on the tagline "A more human way to do", emphasizing new features and technologies supported by Windows 10 that sought to provide a more "personal" experience to users. The campaign culminated with launch events in thirteen cities on July 29, which celebrated "the unprecedented role our biggest fans played in the development of Windows 10". A major aspect of Windows 10 is a focus on harmonizing user experiences and functionality between different classes of devices, along with addressing shortcomings in the Windows user interface that were introduced in Windows 8. Continuing with this pattern, the successor to Windows Phone 8.1 unveiled at the same event is also branded as Windows 10, and shares some user interface elements and apps with its PC counterpart. The Windows Store app ecosystem was revised into Windows apps.They are made to run across multiple platforms and device classes, including smartphones, tablets, Xbox One consoles, and other compatible Windows 10 devices. Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs,can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices (including notifications, credentials, and allowing cross-platform multiplayer for games), and are distributed through a unified Windows Store. Developers can allow "cross-buys", where purchased licenses for an app apply to all of the user's compatible devices, rather than only the one they purchased on (i.e. a user purchasing an app on PC is also entitled to use the smartphone version at no extra cost). On Windows 10, Windows Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, Groove music (formerly Xbox Music), and Movies & TV (formerly Xbox Video). Windows 10 also allows web apps and desktop software (using either Win32 or .NET Framework) to be packaged for distribution on the Windows Store. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing.

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